In May, this was followed by the arrest of most members of the military Supreme Command and mass arrests throughout the military, often on fabricated charges. He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory and co-organised a secret workers' mass meeting for May Day 1900, at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. , Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement against Stalin's government.  In 1956, Khrushchev gave his "Secret Speech", titled "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", to a closed session of the Party's 20th Congress.  Militarily, the Soviets also faced a threat from the east, with Soviet troops clashing with the expansionist Japanese in the latter part of the 1930s. Furthermore, Hitler, in contrast to Stalin, was able to add the authority of "spiritual founder" of national socialism to that of party leader.  Unlike senior Bolsheviks like Kamenev and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin never expressed concern about the rapid growth and expansion of the Cheka and Red Terror.  As leader, he rarely left Moscow unless to go to one of his dachas for holiday; he disliked travel, and refused to travel by plane.  That month featured a surge in arrests for "anti-Soviet agitation," as those celebrating Stalin's death came to police attention.  Stalin barred kulaks from joining these collectives.  In 1951, he initiated the Mingrelian affair, a purge of the Georgian branch of the Communist Party which resulted in over 11,000 deportations. , They also disagreed on the nature of the Soviet state. " Conquest stated that although Stalin had Jewish associates, he promoted anti-Semitism. ", With Germany defeated, Stalin switched focus to the war with Japan, transferring half a million troops to the Far East.  His speeches and articles reflected his utopian vision of the Soviet Union rising to unparalleled heights of human development, creating a "new Soviet person".  He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely.  In 1952, he also eliminated the Politburo and replaced it with a larger version which he called the Presidium.  In mid-1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with Trotsky's supporters to form the United Opposition against Stalin; in October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's command.  Although not so publicly well known as Lenin or Trotsky, Stalin's importance among the Bolsheviks grew.  In 1947, it brought out a second edition of his official biography, which eulogised him to a greater extent than its predecessor.  A number of Georgians resent criticism of Stalin, the most famous figure from their nation's modern history. , On 24 October, police raided the Bolshevik newspaper offices, smashing machinery and presses; Stalin salvaged some of this equipment to continue his activities.  Little of this was fiction, although he could cite passages from Alexander Pushkin, Nikolay Nekrasov, and Walt Whitman by heart.  In the early hours of 25 October, Stalin joined Lenin in a Central Committee meeting in the Smolny Institute, from where the Bolshevik coup the October Revolution was directed.  There remained mutual suspicions between Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who were together known as the "Big Three". , During his youth, Stalin cultivated a scruffy appearance in rejection of middle-class aesthetic values.  Stalin ordered several assassination attempts on Tito's life and contemplated invading Yugoslavia. It comprised the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Social Republic, the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic.  In June 1940, the Red Army occupied the Baltic states, which were forcibly merged into the Soviet Union in August; they also invaded and annexed Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, parts of Romania. , Trotsky and several other Soviet figures promoted the idea that Stalin was a mediocrity.  These purges replaced most of the party's old guard with younger officials who did not remember a time before Stalin's leadership and who were regarded as more personally loyal to him.  Here, he argued for the concept of "Socialism in One Country", which he presented as an orthodox Leninist perspective. , In August 1894, Stalin enrolled in the Orthodox Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.  Leading this vanguard, he believed that the Soviet peoples needed a strong, central figureakin to a Tsarwhom they could rally around. , From 1946 until his death, Stalin only gave three public speeches, two of which lasted only a few minutes.  His writing style was similar, being characterised by its simplicity, clarity, and conciseness.  After Stalin's death, Svetlana changed her surname from Stalin to Alliluyeva, and defected to the U.S., After Nadezhda's death, Stalin became increasingly close to his sister-in-law Zhenya Alliluyeva; Montefiore believed that they were lovers.  There are unproven rumours that from 1934 onward he had a relationship with his housekeeper Valentina Istomina. , The Soviet Union experienced a major famine which peaked in the winter of 193233; between five and seven million people died. But whether that's the case will likely forever remain a matter of speculation, Brent and Naumov concluded in Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, 1948-1953 . He held power as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (19221952) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union (19411953).  By late 1937, all remnants of collective leadership were gone from the Politburo, which was controlled entirely by Stalin. [ 1] Lenin had held the party together since 1917 and had been the central person to determine its policies. addressing the closing ceremony of the chennai international book fair that began on monday, stalin said the state government has allotted rs 3 crore as translation grants and rs 6 crore for. ("Koba" is the Georgian diminutive of Yakobi, or Jacob, and Stalin later named his first-born son in Egnatashvili's honour. , In 193536, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in the hands of Stalin and his Politburo.  That same month, a much publicised trial of accused Jewish industrial wreckers took place in Ukraine. At Lenin's funeral Stalin gave a speech creating the impression he was deeply upset at the passing of his former superior.  After two months, Stalin and Sverdlov escaped back to Saint Petersburg. February 9, 1946. "We have lost one of the tallest socialist leaders, who remained deeply committed to the ideals of .  Although de facto head of government for a decade and a half, Stalin concluded that relations with Germany had deteriorated to such an extent that he needed to deal with the problem as de jure head of government as well: on 6 May, Stalin replaced Molotov as Premier of the Soviet Union.  This mixed approach began to change in December 1934, after prominent party member Sergey Kirov was murdered. " Montefiore described Stalin's favoured types as "young, malleable teenagers or buxom peasant women," who would be supportive and unchallenging toward him. , After the war, Stalin wasaccording to Serviceat the "apex of his career".  The German tactic of blitzkrieg was initially highly effective; the Soviet air force in the western borderlands was destroyed within two days.  Still in Vologda, Stalin agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his life.  He was hand-fed using a spoon, given various medicines and injections, and leeches were applied to him. , Yevstafy Zhakov, a pastor of St. Olga Strelna near St. Petersburg, caused an uproar after he hung a portrait of Stalin among sacred images, stating: "I remember him [Stalin] on appropriate occasions, the day of his birthday, his death and that of Victory.  Lenin accused Stalin of "Great Russian chauvinism"; Stalin accused Lenin of "national liberalism".  The USSR's formation was ratified in December 1922; although officially a federal system, all major decisions were taken by the governing Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow.  He never attended torture sessions or executions, although Service thought Stalin "derived deep satisfaction" from degrading and humiliating people and enjoyed keeping even close associates in a state of "unrelieved fear".  The 1947 Hungarian elections were also rigged, with the Hungarian Working People's Party taking control.  Wheatcroft and historian R. W. Davies estimate famine deaths at 5.56.5million while scholar Steven Rosefielde gives a number of 8.7million. IMO, Stalin was a very fair leader.  Stalin refused to punish the offenders.  He also pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.  When she died, Stalin allegedly said: "This creature softened my heart of stone.  When at social events, he encouraged singing, as well as alcohol consumption; he hoped that others would drunkenly reveal their secrets to him. But he was not a good leader. Answer: No. Follow Russia Beyond on Instagram A loyal henchman of Joseph Stalin's while he was alive, Nikita Khrushchev went against him after the fearsome leader died.  Stalin nevertheless mistrusted his doctors; in January 1952 he had one imprisoned after they suggested that he should retire to improve his health.  In April, Stalin came third in the Bolshevik elections for the party's Central Committee; Lenin came first and Zinoviev came second.  In 1944, the German armies were pushed out of the Baltic states (with the exception of the Ostland), which were then re-annexed into the Soviet Union.  Derived from the Russian word for steel (stal), this has been translated as "Man of Steel"; Stalin may have intended it to imitate Lenin's pseudonym.  Stalin in turn accused Kamenev and Zinoviev of reintroducing factionalism and thus instability into the party.  Stalin was sociable and enjoyed a joke. 03:14.  In 1927, there was some argument in the party over Soviet policy regarding China.  Ekaterine and Stalin left the home by 1883 and began a wandering life, moving through nine different rented rooms over the next decade. , Amid the social and economic turmoil of the post-Soviet period, many Russians viewed Stalin as having overseen an era of order, predictability, and pride.  Other important supporters on the Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and Sergo Ordzhonikidze, with Stalin ensuring his allies ran the various state institutions.  There, Stalin and a fellow Bolshevik Lev Kamenev assumed control of Pravda, and Stalin was appointed the Bolshevik representative to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, an influential council of the city's workers.  Stalin's increasing tolerance of anti-Semitism may have stemmed from his increasing Russian nationalism or from the recognition that anti-Semitism had proved a useful mobilising tool for Hitler and that he could do the same; he may have increasingly viewed the Jewish people as a "counter-revolutionary" nation whose members were loyal to the U.S. There were rumours, although they have never been substantiated, that Stalin was planning on deporting all Soviet Jews to the Jewish Autonomous Region in Birobidzhan, eastern Siberia. , Official records reveal 799,455 documented executions in the Soviet Union between 1921 and 1953; 681,692 of these were carried out between 1937 and 1938, the years of the Great Purge. Hundreds of thousands of people came to see the Generalissimo in the mausoleum.  Although Stalin held Lenin in deep respect, he was vocal in his disagreement with Lenin's view that the Bolsheviks should field candidates for the forthcoming election to the State Duma; Stalin saw the parliamentary process as a waste of time. , In the aftermath of the Second World War, the British Empire declined, leaving the U.S. and USSR as the dominant world powers. The real motivation for the terror, according to Harris, was an excessive fear of counterrevolution.  Stalin had cautioned against this; he believed that nationalism would lead the Polish working-classes to support their government's war effort. , Repressions further intensified in December 1936 and remained at a high level until November 1938, a period known as the Great Purge.  Volkogonov believed that Stalin's Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education in religious institutions. They moved the government from Petrograd to Moscow in March 1918.  The Chinese government instituted a period of official mourning for Stalin's death.  According to scholar Robert Service, Stalin's "few innovations in ideology were crude, dubious developments of Marxism". , In October 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong took power in China. Here are 10 facts about Joseph Stalin.  He took Nadezhda Alliluyeva as his secretary and at some point married her, although the wedding date is unknown. , The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during the war.  In later life, he disapproved of Svetlana's various suitors and husbands, putting a strain on his relationship with her. , In the wake of Lenin's death, various protagonists emerged in the struggle to become his successor: alongside Stalin was Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, and Mikhail Tomsky.  Some of these derived from political expediency rather than any sincere intellectual commitment; Stalin would often turn to ideology post hoc to justify his decisions.  He formed a State Defense Committee, which he headed as Supreme Commander, as well as a military Supreme Command (Stavka), with Georgy Zhukov as its Chief of Staff.  Soviet forces continued to expand until they occupied all their territorial concessions, but the U.S. rebuffed Stalin's desire for the Red Army to take a role in the Allied occupation of Japan. Joseph Stalin used savage tactics to keep his powers. PM Modi's advice to BJP workers: 'Don't make anti-Muslim remarks' Views: 264.  He enjoyed listening to classical music, owning around 2,700 records, and frequently attending the Bolshoi Theatre during the 1930s and 1940s. U.S. led forces pushed the North Koreans back.  In any event, she suspected that he was unfaithful with other women, and committed suicide in 1932.  There was also internal turmoil in the Communist Party, as Trotsky led a faction calling for abolition of trade unions; Lenin opposed this, and Stalin helped rally opposition to Trotsky's position. Stalin was officially the leader of the Communist party, but to many in the Party, he was only a figurehead.  Service also noted that Stalin "would never be Russian", could not credibly pass as one, and never tried to pretend that he was. , After the Bolsheviks seized power, both right and left-wing armies rallied against them, generating the Russian Civil War. , Shortly after his death, the Soviet Union went through a period of de-Stalinization.  The Central Committee met on the day of his death, after which Malenkov, Beria, and Khrushchev emerged as the party's dominant figures.  In April 1949, the Western powers established the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), an international military alliance of capitalist countries.  Various East European communists also visited Stalin in Moscow.  Many of the collectivised peasants resented the loss of their private farmland, and productivity slumped.  Although Stalin did not share Lenin's belief that Europe's proletariat were on the verge of revolution, he acknowledged that as long as it stood alone, Soviet Russia remained vulnerable. Malenkov denounced the Stalin personality cult, which was subsequently criticised in Pravda. We must close that gap in ten years.  After Lenin's death, Stalin relied heavily on Lenin's writingsfar more so than those of Marx and Engelsto guide him in the affairs of state.  Still, Stalin foresaw the undesirability of a nuclear conflict, saying in 1949 that "atomic weapons can hardly be used without spelling the end of the world.  Montefiore thought Stalin's brutality marked him out as a "natural extremist"; Service suggested he had tendencies toward a paranoid and sociopathic personality disorder.  He erroneously claimed that the initial German advance in the early part of the war was not a result of Soviet military weakness, but rather a deliberate Soviet strategic retreat. It sought to provide a guide to leading the country after his death. 23M views 5 years ago The personalities and spectres of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin loom large in the events of the twentieth Century.  The U.S. went to the UN Security Councilwhich the Soviets were boycotting over its refusal to recognise Mao's governmentand secured military support for the South Koreans.  Germany was divided into four zones: Soviet, U.S., British, and French, with Berlin itselflocated within the Soviet areaalso subdivided thusly.  Lenin was his favourite author but he also read, and sometimes appreciated, a great deal of writing by Leon Trotsky and other arch-enemies. , Armed peasant uprisings against dekulakisation and collectivisation broke out in Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern Russia, and central Asia, reaching their apex in March 1930; these were suppressed by the Red Army.  In January 1930, the Politburo approved the liquidation of the kulak class; accused kulaks were rounded up and exiled to other parts of the country or to concentration camps.  The government's anti-religious campaign was re-intensified, with increased funding given to the League of Militant Atheists.  He was a good organiser, with a strategic mind, and judged others according to their inner strength, practicality, and cleverness.  After Stalin's death, Khrushchev claimed that Stalin encouraged him to incite anti-Semitism in Ukraine, allegedly telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews.  The second Moscow Show Trial took place in January 1937, and the third in March 1938, in which Bukharin and Rykov were accused of involvement in the alleged Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist plot and sentenced to death.  In August 1907, he attended the Seventh Congress of the Second International an international socialist organisation in Stuttgart, Germany. Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin attended the Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary before joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.  Residing at his Gorki dacha, Lenin's main connection to Sovnarkom was through Stalin, who was a regular visitor. , Because of the ongoing First World War, in which Russia was fighting the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Lenin's government relocated from Petrograd to Moscow in March 1918. Not true at all. Some weeks after the controversy, the Patriarchate of Moscow forced Zhakov to remove the icon of Stalin from his parish.  In the personality cult constructed around him, he was known as the vozhd, an equivalent to the Italian duce and German fhrer.  His second attempt, in January 1904, was successful and he made it to Tiflis.  Cautiously regarding the responses from the Western Allies, Stalin avoided immediately installing Communist Party governments across Eastern Europe, instead initially ensuring that Marxist-Leninists were placed in coalition ministries.  Stalin formed a Bolshevik Battle Squad which he used to try to keep Baku's warring ethnic factions apart; he also used the unrest as a cover for stealing printing equipment.  An autodidact, he claimed to read as many as 500 pages a day, with Montefiore regarding him as an intellectual.  They launched attacks on the government's Cossack troops and pro-Tsarist Black Hundreds, co-ordinating some of their operations with the Menshevik militia.  Stalin's friends noted that he underwent a significant change following her suicide, becoming emotionally harder.  There, Mensheviks confronted Stalin about the robbery and voted to expel him from the RSDLP, but he took no notice of them.  Stalin's doctrine held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from capitalist intervention. By highlighting the ways in which Stalin manufactured charisma, this article will show how the 'cult of personality' can be viewed as a legitimation technique using manufactured charisma as a tool. Lenin was seen as the figure head of the Communist Party, Stalin used this to his advantage in winning over the Russia population. 1922 (29th December) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was created. , Many of major construction projects, including the White Sea-Baltic Canal and the Moscow Metro, were constructed largely through forced labour.  He was of the view that if they became fully autonomous, then they would end up being controlled by the most reactionary elements of their community; as an example he cited the largely illiterate Tatars, whom he claimed would end up dominated by their mullahs.  It was established that 1,710 Soviet towns and 70,000 villages had been destroyed.  Stalin opposed the idea of separate Georgian, Armenian, and Azeri autonomous republics, arguing that these would likely oppress ethnic minorities within their respective territories; instead he called for a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.  Kotkin observed that Stalin's ability to remain in power relied on him having a majority in the Politburo at all times.  According to Montefiore, this was "Stalin's most famous work".  Stalin felt humiliated and under-appreciated; on 17 August, he demanded demission from the military, which was granted on 1 September.  Stalin returned to Saint Petersburg, where he continued editing and writing articles for Pravda.  Aware that the ethnic Russian majority may have concerns about being ruled by a Georgian, he promoted ethnic Russians throughout the state hierarchy and made the Russian language compulsory throughout schools and offices, albeit to be used in tandem with local languages in areas with non-Russian majorities.  A 2013 survey by Tbilisi State University found 45% of Georgians expressing "a positive attitude" to him.  The Internationale was dropped as the country's national anthem, to be replaced with a more patriotic song. Fair leadership doesn't use power to make arbitrary and . Amid the war, the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and Bessarabia and North Bukovina, subsequently establishing Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and in parts of East Asia.  In contrast to his approach to the Baltic states, he rejected the proposal of merging the new communist states into the Soviet Union, rather recognising them as independent nation-states.  Stalin regarded Vasily as spoiled and often chastised his behaviour; as Stalin's son, Vasily nevertheless was swiftly promoted through the ranks of the Red Army and allowed a lavish lifestyle. He officially ruled the country from 1924-1953.  Although he got into many fights, Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, and singing as a choirboy. There, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for both his mass repression and his personality cult.  That month, he travelled to Helsinki to talk with the Finnish Social-Democrats, granting Finland's request for independence in December. " In both the Soviet Union and elsewhere he came to be portrayed as an "Oriental despot".  From 1929 to 1930, further show trials were held to intimidate opposition: these included the Industrial Party Trial, Menshevik Trial, and Metro-Vickers Trial.  He declared that "socialism, which is the first phase of communism, has basically been achieved in this country". I saw Hitler many, many times, and Goering and Goebbels.   By the latter part of 1937, the purges had moved beyond the party and were affecting the wider population.  While agricultural production stagnated, Stalin focused on a series of major infrastructure projects, including the construction of hydroelectric plants, canals, and railway lines running to the polar north.  He personally met with a range of Western visitors, including George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells, both of whom were impressed with him.  Stalin initiated confidential communications with Hitler in October 1933, shortly after the latter came to power in Germany. Under Stalin, socialism in one country became a central tenet of the party's ideology. No, I do not think that Stalin was a good leader.  Stalin supported Lenin's desire to sign an armistice with the Central Powers regardless of the cost in territory.  The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed.  New mines were opened, new cities like Magnitogorsk constructed, and work on the White Sea-Baltic Canal began. However, as many of the following .  Service suggested that the country might have collapsed long before 1991 without Stalin.  According to Volkogonov, "Stalin's private life and working life were one and the same"; he did not take days off from political activities.  It has been conjectured that Stalin was murdered; Beria has been suspected of murdering him, but no firm evidence has ever appeared. firealpaca time lapse
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